I would note that most of those reasons don’t apply to naval guns in any significant way. The cost of the naval gun is small compared to the overall cost of the ship, movement is effortless since the ship moves anyway, logistics are no more of a burden/challenge than for any other aspect of the ship’s logistical needs, and ships have relatively large magazines and sufficient inventory of munitions for their mission needs.
Beyond that, naval guns have a few advantages over land. Modern naval gun loading is largely or totally automated which allows the rate of fire to be maintained indefinitely as opposed to hand loaded land artillery. This allows the extended operation of larger caliber guns, if desired. Being on ships, naval guns are inherently more survivable due to ‘stealth’, continual movement, and armor (well, guns used to be in armored mounts and ought to be today).
The conclusion seems to be that land artillery has settled on a reasonable compromise in the 155 mm gun but that naval guns are not bound by the same limitations. Therefore, there is no reason not to have larger caliber naval guns. Larger caliber guns produce bigger ‘booms’ and that is generally good. For those cases where bigger is not better, ships, both individually and as a fleet, traditionally have a range of gun sizes and can choose the appropriate size.
As with most things, a range of naval guns offers the best overall performance and value. Too many people want to argue for one-or-the-other options when a mix is almost always best. I don’t think anyone would argue that there are times when having a 16” gun available is highly desirable but that doesn’t mean the entire fleet should be armed with them. A fleet mix of 5”, 8”, and 16” would seem reasonable.
Some commenters have made the case for naval 155 mm guns and that’s a fair discussion. Whether the benefits of moving to that size would be worth the disruption of the current 5” logistics, training, and support train is debatable.
In short, nothing about land artillery experience precludes larger caliber naval guns and I see no reason why they should not be part of the fleet gun mix.